The heating efficiency of ground-source and water-source heat pumps is indicated by their coefficient of performance (COP), which is the ratio of heat provided in Btu per Btu of energy input. Their cooling efficiency is indicated by the Energy Efficiency Ratio (EER), which is the ratio of the heat removed (in Btu per hour) to the electricity required (in watts) to run the unit. Look for the ENERGY STAR label, which indicates a heating COP of 2.8 or greater and an EER of 13 or greater.
Manufacturers of high-efficiency geothermal heat pumps voluntarily use the EPA ENERGY STAR label on qualifying equipment and related product literature. If you are purchasing a geothermal heat pump and uncertain whether it meets ENERGY STAR qualifications, ask for an efficiency rating of at least 2.8 COP or 13 EER.
Many geothermal heat pump systems carry the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and EPA ENERGY STAR label. ENERGY STAR-labeled equipment can now be financed with special ENERGY STAR loans from banks and other financial institutions. The goal of the loan program is to make ENERGY STAR equipment easier to purchase, so ENERGY STAR loans were created with attractive terms. Some loans have lower interest rates, longer repayment periods, or both. Ask your contractor about ENERGY STAR loans or call the ENERGY STAR toll-free hotline at 1-888-STAR-YES for a list of financing options.
Because shallow ground temperatures are relatively constant throughout the United States, geothermal heat pumps (GHPs) can be effectively used almost anywhere. However, the specific geological, hydrological, and spatial characteristics of your land will help your local system supplier/installer determine the best type of ground loop for your site:
Factors such as the composition and properties of your soil and rock (which can affect heat transfer rates) require consideration when designing a ground loop. For example, soil with good heat transfer properties requires less piping to gather a certain amount of heat than soil with poor heat transfer properties. The amount of soil available contributes to system design as well — system suppliers in areas with extensive hard rock or soil too shallow to trench may install vertical ground loops instead of horizontal loops.
Ground or surface water availability also plays a part in deciding what type of ground loop to use. Depending on factors such as depth, volume, and water quality, bodies of surface water can be used as a source of water for an open-loop system, or as a repository for coils of piping in a closed-loop system. Ground water can also be used as a source for open-loop systems, provided the water quality is suitable and all ground water discharge regulations are met.
Before you purchase an open-loop system, you will want to be sure your system supplier/installer has fully investigated your site's hydrology, so you can avoid potential problems such as aquifer depletion and groundwater contamination. Antifreeze fluids circulated through closed-loop systems generally pose little to no environmental hazard.
The amount and layout of your land, your landscaping, and the location of underground utilities or sprinkler systems also contribute to your system design. Horizontal ground loops (generally the most economical) are typically used for newly constructed buildings with sufficient land. Vertical installations or more compact horizontal "Slinky™" installations are often used for existing buildings because they minimize the disturbance to the landscape.
Because of the technical knowledge and equipment needed to properly install the piping, a GHP system installation is not a do-it-yourself project. Installers should be certified and experienced. Green Energy Mechanical is Metro West, and South Shore Mass' trusted company for geothermal heat pump systems, as well as energy-efficient furnaces and other home heating solutions.
The ground heat exchanger in a GHP system is made up of a closed or open loop pipe system. Most common is the closed loop, in which high-density polyethylene pipe is buried horizontally at 4-6 feet deep or vertically at 100 to 400 feet deep. These pipes are filled with an environmentally friendly antifreeze/water solution that acts as a heat exchanger. In the winter, the fluid in the pipes extracts heat from the earth and carries it into the building. In the summer, the system reverses and takes heat from the building and deposits it to the cooler ground.
The air delivery ductwork distributes the heated or cooled air through the house's duct work, just like conventional systems. The box that contains the indoor coil and fan is sometimes called the air handler because it moves house air through the heat pump for heating or cooling. The air handler contains a large blower and a filter just like conventional air conditioners.
Most geothermal heat pumps are automatically covered under your homeowner's insurance policy. Contact your insurance provider to find out what its policy is. Even if your provider will cover your system, it is best to inform them in writing that you own a new system.
Call Green Energy Mechanical or contact us online for a free geothermal heat pump installation estimate today! Our heating services are available in Randolph, Weymouth, Brockton, Canton, Quincy, Easton, Boston, Cambridge, Braintree, Newton and throughout the surrounding Massachusetts area.